Salad and Dressings WorkShop brochure

Salad and Dressings WorkShop, microbiome focused

SUMMARY:  Following the May 26 Treesdale seminar, you wanted to know practically how to improve microbiome health.  You now understand it exists, it is changeable, and it is behind 70% of immunity.  So here it is:  attend the Salad and Dressings WorkShop in Wexford, PA! You know you have got to nourish your trillions of microbiome beasties and that certain fats are best till the dust settles on the other oils and their associations to disease.  For those unable to attend, read the prebiotic and probiotic discussion in this post for tips for those two true microbiome supporting salad components. If you are local, come learn how to put it all together!  

Spend more time with the solution than the problem!!!
Microbiome Awareness is NOT Paralysis

I want you to know, I had a conversation YESTERDAY, at a “Healthiest Employers” awards conference in Pittsburgh with  a key medical director at UPMC about microbiome awareness to the lay.  Dr. P told me “…microbiome awareness to lay is paralysis!”  He asked, “What do you do now… post the presentation?”  He insinuated you did not know what to do with the microbiome information.  I showed him the Salad & Dressings WorkShop brochure and invited him, not that I expect him to attend.  I want you to know, this is NOT the first time I have listened to medical professionals speak of lay inability for understanding microbiome impact on health.  I totally don’t get this attitude.  I see the microbiome supporting changes you guys implement after I present microbiome awareness.  While the conventional medical establishment can remain silent on microbiome awareness, you seek, learn and act.  I applaud you!!!

Salad and Dressings WorkShop, microbiome focused

In this class you will make, taste, and take salad dressings and accompaniments all the while learning about:

  • True microbiome supporting salad components,
  • FATS (monounsaturates, polyunsaturates, carotenoid absorption, unadulterated EVOO sourcing, etc.)
  • Herbs and Spices (part of your 30 vegs),
  • Proper preparation of plant sourced protein (quinoa/lentils/nuts/seeds),
  • some TMAO, and
  • much more putting science into practice! Hint: It isn’t red peppers, carrots, cucumbers and greens.

Bring your own glass jars and Ninja if you own one.
DATES (pick one): June 14 or 21
Time: 7 PM
Cost: $20
RSVP to: or

Share with your friends! If you can’t make either date but want to attend let us know. We’ll try to add a third date!

Four microbiome supporting salad components

lightbulb21 & 2:  Microbiome nourishing salads always includes whole food prebiotics & probiotics.

3 &4:  Microbiome nourishing salads always eliminates dressings containing gut degrading ingredients like emulsifiers and pro-inflammatory oils.

For details, see the emulsifier post here.  For the  oils, see the soybean, corn, vegetable posts that discuss their associations to disease:  here for diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and IBD, here for the need for fat and what is the best fat along with a great salad dressing recipe, and here for less breast cancer diagnoses consuming EVOO than nuts but more diagnoses consuming no/low fat.

Prebiotics are food for the probiotics.

This is why we eat prebiotics along with probiotics!  think about kimchi — its ingredients naturally combine prebiotics  (cabbage, radishes, ginger), and the fermentation provides the probiotics! But there are unfermented foods that we eat that gets fermented in the colon; these are called prebiotic foods.   Adding prebiotic and probiotic ingredients are two microbiome supporting salad components.

Prebiotics insights

Prebiotics are not living; prebiotics are non-digestible fiber that reach the colon.  The bacteria present  in the colon ferments (consumes) those fiber substrates and can stimulate selectively the growth of probiotic-like bacteria normally present in the gut.

The definition of prebiotics is changing as advances in the understanding of diet–microbiome–host interactions challenge important aspects of the current concept of prebiotics.  This paper argues that the prebiotic definition in 2010 (inulin, FOS, tGOS, and lactualose) should be explanded to include inulin, FOS, tGOS, human milk, oligosaccharides, and candidate prebiotics such as resistant starch, pectin, arabinoxylan, whole grains, other dietary fibers, and noncarbs that exert action through modulation of the microbiome:

Prebiotics are currently considered to be :  Inulin, Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), Polydextrose,  Arabinogalactan, and
Polyols—lactulose,  lactitol.  In the US, the main prebiotic sources are 70% wheat, and 20% onions.  I’ll update this citation as I’ve lost it for now!  You should choose lots of variety of the food examples within these categories (not inclusive):

Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits explains:  All prebiotics are fiber, but not all fiber is prebiotic.  Fiber intakes around the world are less than half of recommended levels.  From this paper:  Most commonly consumed foods are low in dietary fiber.  The Nutrition Facts label is based on 25 g of fiber recommended daily for a 2000 calorie diet. Americans typically consume about half of the recommended amounts of fiber each day (about 15 g/day) [17] Flours, grains, and potatoes are the most popular sources of fiber in the American diet; while fruits, legumes, and nuts are the least popular sources [17].  Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits further explains:

  • Prebiotics are non-digestible substances that provide a beneficial physiological effect to the host by selectively stimulating the favorable growth or activity of a limited number of indigenous bacteria. This generally refers to the ability of a fiber to increase the growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, which are considered beneficial to human health. Benefits of prebiotics include improvement in gut barrier function and host immunity, reduction of potentially pathogenic bacteria subpopulations (e.g., clostridia), and enhanced SCFA production.  
  •  An important mechanism of action for dietary fiber and prebiotics is fermentation in the colon and changes in gut microflora.  Classification of a food ingredient as a prebiotic requires scientific demonstration that the ingredient [2]:
    – Resists gastric acidity, hydrolysis by mammalian enzymes, and absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract;
    – Is fermented by the intestinal microflora;
    – Selectively stimulates the growth and/or activity of intestinal bacteria potentially associated with health and well-being.
  • Carbohydrates having the ability to be utilized by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria [49] are: Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and lactulose were shown to support the most favorable growth characteristics, while poor growth was shown with inulin, maltodextrin, and polydextrose. Mixtures of short chain oligosaccharides and inulin showed more growth.
  • Fber and plant food sources (Table 2) that favorably alter the intestinal microflora include:  Inulin, oligofructose, and FOS — increases fecal bifidobacteria at fairly low levels of consumption (5–8 g per day).   Acacia gum — produced a greater increase in bifidobacteria and lactobacilli than an equal dose of inulin, and resulted in fewer gastrointestinal side effects, such as gas and bloating [41]. Banana consumption (2 per day) — increased bifidobacteria, Mitsou et al. [48]  Polydextrose — dose-dependent decrease in bacteroides and an increase in lactobacilli and bifidobacteria [42,43]. Wheat dextrin — increase lactobacilli,  reduce Clostridium perfringens, and increase bifidobacteria [44]. Psyllium — was found to have prebiotic potential in a small (n = 11) study in women [45].  Whole-grain wheat breakfast cereal had a prebiotic effect, while wheat bran did not. 
Maybe it is the other things in food high in fiber that protect health!

Foods that are high in fiber, whole grains, vegetables, fruits, and legumes contain more than just fiber. These co-passengers with fiber may provide the protective health properties of fiber, rather than the fiber itself [19]. Also, additional properties of fiber, such as viscosity and fermentability, may be more important characteristics in terms of physiological benefits. Viscous fibers are those that have gel-forming properties in the intestinal tract, and fermentable fibers are those that can be metabolized by colonic bacteria. In general, soluble fibers are more completed fermented and have a higher viscosity than insoluble fibers. However, not all soluble fibers are viscous (e.g., partially hydrolyzed guar gum and acacia gum) and some insoluble fibers may be well fermented (Table 1). Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits

Gobal consumption of prebiotics varies; we don’t eat much of them!

North America consume 1 to 4 gms/day of inulin or oligofructose, Western Europe consumes 3 to 10 gms/day.  –Prebiotics and Probiotics Science and Technology, Volume 1.  Quite a difference!

There is a synergistic effect of consuming prebiotics and probiotics together.

When probiotics and prebiotics are used in combination, they are known as “synbiotics.” The combination of suitable probiotics and prebiotics enhances survival and activity of the organism, for example, an FOS in conjunction with a Bifidobacterium strain or lactitol in conjunction with Lactobacillus strains [23]. The combination of prebiotic and probiotic has synergistic effects because in addition to promoting growth of existing strains of beneficial bacteria in the colon, synbiotics also act to improve the survival, implantation, and growth of newly added probiotic strains… The combination of probiotics and prebiotics significantly reduces the serum cholesterol level and that can be used as an alternative remedy for hypercholesterolemic problems without any side effects to the consumers. Effects of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics on Hypercholesterolemia: A Review

Many actually don’t eat a lot of microorganisms!

The post, AVG NUMBERS AND KINDS OF MICROORGANISMS CONSUMED IN A DAY showed how little microorganisms we really eat.  The post discussed the study,  The microbes we eat: abundance and taxonomy of microbes consumed in a day’s worth of meals for three diet types, (Average Amer. Diet, USDA, & Vegan).

  1. The Average American (AMERICAN) focused on convenience foods,
  2. USDA recommended (USDA) emphasized fruits and vegetables, lean meat, dairy, and whole grains, and
  3. Vegan (VEGAN) excluded all animal products.

The AMERICAN and VEGAN dietary patterns had 3 orders of magnitude fewer total microorganisms than the USDA dietary patterns, with total microorganisms of CFU and CFU respectively. Neither the AMERICAN nor the VEGAN dietary pattern meals contained fermented foods that were not heat treated as part of meal preparation. For example, the AMERICAN lunch and dinner contained cheese that was either cooked on a grill or baked in the oven and the VEGAN lunch contained tofu, which was cooked in the vegetable broth.

The USDA lunch also had the highest amounts of yeast and mold (and CFU respectively) of all the meals, and this meal also had relatively high amounts of aerobic bacteria (CFU).

There are many sources of probiotics and prebiotics and variety is likely important.  Maybe it is the other things in food high in fiber that protect health!

Foods that are high in fiber, whole grains, vegetables, fruits, and legumes contain more than just fiber. These co-passengers with fiber may provide the protective health properties of fiber, rather than the fiber itself [19]. Also, additional properties of fiber, such as viscosity and fermentability, may be more important characteristics in terms of physiological benefits. Viscous fibers are those that have gel-forming properties in the intestinal tract, and fermentable fibers are those that can be metabolized by colonic bacteria. In general, soluble fibers are more completed fermented and have a higher viscosity than insoluble fibers. However, not all soluble fibers are viscous (e.g., partially hydrolyzed guar gum and acacia gum) and some insoluble fibers may be well fermented (Table 1). Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits

Look over the below probiotic and prebiotic list and consider consuming variety since all have differing phytonutrient, bacterial, and fiber benefits:

Live probiotics benefit the microbiome.  Are dead probiotics beneficial to our guts?  

Yes according to the study below, especially for constipation.  Dead probiotics altered the microbiome and had gut beneficial functional impact, but the microbiome impact was different than how the live probiotics altered the microbiome.

Probiotics are living bacteria and yeast that live in the GI tract.  They modulate the microbiome.  Probiotics are defined aslive microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host’ (10), and the administration of these organisms might change the composition of host gut microbiota.

The studies below show that both living and dead probiotics help gut function but there are differences in microbiome constituency.  This altered metabolites (chemicals produced by the microbiota) including short chain fatty acids (see below for those many benefits).  The ramifications of the differing microbiota is not yet known, but health benefits were realized for both dead and living probiotics for the Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 strain .  Oral ingestion of certain live probiotics colonized the gut.

Nineteen strains of lactobacilli (each 5×106/ml) were fed to healthy volunteers in 100 ml of fermented oatmeal soup.11 Biopsy specimens showed that the organisms colonised jejunal and rectal mucosas. Adherent lactobacilli were recovered from jejunal samples 11 days after the probiotic was stopped, while mucosal clostridia decreased up to 100-fold in some volunteers. In rectal tissue, anaerobes and enterobacteria were reduced.

You can make live probiotics or purchase them in the refrigerated section of your store.  Here are some local to my area.

More studies on the functional qualities of probiotics

The study, Effect of continuous ingestion of a beverage prepared with Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 inactivated by heat treatment on the regulation of intestinal function, demonstrated that ingesting pasteurized (so non-living)  Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 (CP2305) fermented milk improved bowel habit frequency (both slow and fast transit) and the intestinal microbial environment, consistent with the effects of fermented milk (FM) containing live CP2305, compared with the effects of a placebo prepared using artificially acidified sour milk.  “The results suggest that heat-treated CP2305 has beneficial effects on digestive tract function even when heat-inactivated. These findings may suggest that this strain has the potential for application as a paraprobiotic in the food industry.”

Oral administration of the living form of the bacterial strain CP2305 leads to establishment in the gut system. Ten months after three ingestions of FM including 1 × 1011 live cells, 4 of 11 volunteers still carried it in their gut systems (unpublished results). This fact indicated that CP2305 has a strong affinity for the intestinal surfaces of some volunteers and is retained inside the gut system thereafter, potentially for long periods of time.

The composition of microbiota was changed only in the CP2305 group (Fig. 5). In particular, the Clostridium cluster IV group, which includes F. prausnitzii, was increased substantially in the heat-inactivated CP2305 group ( Fig. 6)… the concentrations of SCFAs were increased during ingestion of heat-inactivated CP2305, including significant increases in propionic acid, butyric acid and valeric acid (Fig. 4). Many bacteria belonging to Clostridium cluster IV are well known as SCFA producers ( Louis, Scott, Duncan, & Flint, 2007), but we were unable to determine the relationships between these findings. Heat-inactivated CP2305 may have a beneficial influence on the intestine and the intestinal environment through stimulation by SCFAs produced by internal members of the pre-existing intestinal microbiota. However, it is not clear whether heat-inactivated CP2305 FM stimulates the proliferation of some bacterial groups that produce high levels of SCFAs or activates their metabolism without changes in their numbers or whether these two effects occur in parallel.

And here is a newer term, “Paraprobiotics.,” This is what manufacturers are preferring to add to foods

Paraprobiotics are defined as “non-viable microbial cells (intact or broken) or crude cell extracts (i.e., with complex chemical composition), which, when administered (orally or topically) in adequate amounts, confer a benefit on the human or animal consumer”.  Manufacturers like paraprobiotics since the non-viable materials of microbial origin have noticeable advantages over probiotics for the development of safer and more stable products (such as longer shelf life or not needing refrigeration) (13).

The follow-up CP2503 study demonstrated that the daily consumption of beverages containing low amounts of non-viable CP2305 cells (parabiotics) for 3 weeks (N=120 aged 20–63 years) ameliorated the intestinal environment and intestinal functions of healthy participants with a tendency toward constipation or frequent bowel movements.  Microbiota changes were:

Bifidobacterium was significantly increased in the CP2305 group compared with that of the placebo group (Fig. 6)Bifidobacterium suppress[es] the propagation of harmful bacteria; maintaining the healthy balance of the intestinal microbiota; regulat[es] the immune system; and prevent[s] infection, allergy, and cancer (21). Therefore, many efforts to increase the population of Bifidobacterium in the human intestine have been undertaken… Bifidobacterium bacteria in the intestinal tract produce succinate and lactate, as well as SCFAs, such as acetate and propionate. It has been suggested that these acids lower the pH of the intestine and inhibit the propagation of harmful bacteria and the production of putrefactive intestinal products. These SCFAs also act on the growth of intestinal epithelial cells, thereby regulating intestinal peristalsis and bowel habits. These findings have attracted much attention to probiotic products. In this trial, the increase in the Bifidobacterium content of the intestinal microbiota was fully reflected in the apparent increase in the levels of the endogenous strains. This result suggests that the gut microbiota was significantly changed by the continuous intake of paraprobiotic CP2305 cells.

This study however found a significant decrease in the Clostridium cluster IV population in the CP2305 group (Fig. 6). “This finding is quite different from the results of the previous clinical trial (14), in which a beverage produced using sterilized CP2305-fermented milk was used. In the previous trial, a significant increase in the level of Clostridium cluster IV bacteria was accompanied by a significant upregulation in the production of several SCFAs, including propionate, butyrate, and valerateA possible hypthesis is that the paraprobiotic CP2305 cells in the present study first affect gut functions, changing the environmental conditions of the intrinsic intestinal microbiota, and that thereafter the composition of the intestinal microbiota changes to adapt to the altered environmental conditions. Further studies are needed to verify this hypothesis.”

Realize why there is so little research on probiotics (or prebiotics or paraprobiotics for that matter)

For probiotics, this is because probiotics are defined as “drugs” by the FDA.  Risk and Safety of Probiotics, May 2015 noted:

Despite the clear need for more research on both the safety and efficacy of probiotics, at the time of this writing, only 7 US federally funded human interventional studies are being conducted in this field NIH Reporter Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools; accessed 12 February 2015). In a 2010 draft guidance from the FDA, probiotics were defined as live biotherapeutic products, in other words, drugs, and as such submission of an Investigational New Drug (IND) applications is required before investigators can proceed with clinical research in this area. Road blocks experienced during the probiotic IND process have included unwillingness of the probiotic manufacturer to share relevant information with the FDA, and requirement to restrict enrollment using an extensive list of exclusion criteria (personal communication with FDA, 2007–2009). As a result, many investigators have participated in discussions with regulators over the difficulty these policies create for those wishing to further scientific knowledge about the efficacy and safety of these products. Nevertheless in 2013, FDA guidance on INDs and human research studies included the statement that “if an edible product that might otherwise be a conventional food is intended for a use other than providing taste, aroma, or nutritive value, such as blocking the absorption of carbohydrates in the gut, that product becomes a drug because the primary purpose of consuming it has changed”. In other words, the product is no longer being consumed as a food—primarily for taste, aroma, or nutritive value—but used as a drug for some other physiological effect.

In conclusion, microbiome nourishing salads:

lightbulb2always includes whole food prebiotics & probiotics, and

always eliminates dressings containing gut degrading ingredients like emulsifiers and pro-inflammatory oils.

In health through awareness,


Now I'd like to hear your thoughts... comments are always welcome!